General social penetration theory about how the process of interpersonal communication.
Assumptions[ edit ] Social penetration theory is based on four basic assumptions. For instance, on a first date, people tend to present their outer images only, talking about hobbies.
As the relational development progresses, wider and more controversial topics such as political views are included in the conversations. Second, interpersonal relationships develop in a generally systematic and predictable manner.
This assumption indicates the predictability of relationship development. Although it is impossible to foresee the exact and precise path of relational development, there is certain trajectory to follow.
As Altman and Taylor note, "People seem to possess very sensitive tuning mechanisms which enable them to program carefully their interpersonal relationships.
For example, after prolonged and fierce fights, a couple who originally planned to get married may decide to break up and turn to be strangers ultimately.
Fourth, self-disclosure is the key to facilitate relationship development. Self-disclosure means disclosing and sharing personal information to others. It enables individuals to know each other and plays a crucial role in determining how far a relationship can go, because gradual exploration of mutual selves is essential in the process of social penetration.
In sharing information about themselves, people make choices about what to share and with whom to share it. Altman and Taylor believe that opening inner self to other is the main route to reach to intimate relationships. As for the speed of self-disclosure, Altman and Taylor were convinced that the process of social penetration moves a lot faster in the beginning stages of a relationship and slows considerably.
In other words, penetration is rapid at the start but slows down quickly as the tightly wrapped inner layers are reached.
Disclosure reciprocity[ edit ] Self-disclosure is reciprocal, especially in the early stages of relationship development.
Disclosure reciprocity is an indispensable component in SPT. Disclosure reciprocity can induce positive and satisfactory feelings and drive forward relational development. This is because as mutual disclosure take place between individuals, they might feel a sense of emotional equity.
Disclosure reciprocity occurs when the openness of one person is reciprocated with the same degree of the openness from the other person. Onion model Social penetration is known for its onion analogy, which implies that self-disclosure is the process of tearing layers or concentric circles away.
It is sometimes called the " onion theory " of personality. Personality is like a multi-layered onion with public self on the outer layer and private self at the core.
This is done in a reciprocal manner. The main factor that acts as a catalyst in the development of relationships is proper self disclosure.
Altman and Taylor proposes that there are four major stages in social penetration: This first stage follows the standards of social desirability and norms of appropriateness.
Individuals start to reveal the inner self bit by bit, expressing personal attitudes about moderate topics such as government and education. This may not be the whole truth as individuals are not yet comfortable to lay themselves bare.
This is the stage of casual friendshipand many relationships do not go past this stage. Individuals are getting more comfortable to talk about private and personal matter, and there are some forms of commitment in this stage. Personal idiomsor words and phrases that embody unique meanings between individuals, are used in conversations.
Criticism and arguments may arise. A comfortable share of positive and negative reactions occurs in this stage. Relationships become more important to both parties, more meaningful and more enduring.
It is a stage of close friendships and intimate partners. The relationship now reaches a plateau in which some of the deepest personal thoughtsbeliefsand values are shared and each can predict the emotional reactions of the other person.At a party, one observes various levels of interpersonal communication.
At an open table, new acquaintances exchange names and share their musical preferences. Nudge theory is a flexible and modern change-management concept for: understanding of how people think, make decisions, and behave, .
GJSS ISSN: Impact Factor (UJRI): ICV Mathematical Vygotsky’s Zone of Proximal Development Theory: What are its. The social penetration theory (SPT) proposes that, as relationships develop, interpersonal communication moves from relatively shallow, non-intimate levels to deeper, more intimate ones.
The theory was formulated by psychologists Irwin Altman and Dalmas Taylor in to understand relationship development between individuals. Social Science Dictionary with a Durkheim bias, linked to Andrew Roberts' Social Science History. later in life. It incorporated his penis envy theory and the Oedipus complex theory, whereby a boy competes with his father for his mother’s affections.