I will comment on the military aspect of this plan in a concluding note.
Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate— While the Byzantine Roman and Sassanid Persian empires were both weakened by warfare —a new power in the form of Islam grew in the Middle East. In a series of rapid Muslim conquestsArab armiesled by the Caliphs and skilled military commanders such as Khalid ibn al-Walidswept through most of the Middle East, taking more than half of Byzantine territory and completely engulfing the Persian lands.
In Anatoliathey were stopped in the Siege of Constantinople —18 by the Byzantines, who were helped by the Bulgarians. The Byzantine provinces of Roman SyriaNorth Africaand Sicily, however, could not mount such a resistance, and the Muslim conquerors swept through those regions.
At the far west, they crossed the sea taking Visigothic Hispania before being halted in southern France in the Battle of Tours by the Franks. At its greatest extent, the Arab Empire was the first empire to control the entire Middle East, as well three-quarters of the Mediterranean regionthe only other empire besides the Roman Empire to control most of the Mediterranean Sea.
The Seljuq Empire would also later dominate the region. Much of North Africa became a peripheral area to the main Muslim centres in the Middle East, but Iberia Al-Andalus and Morocco soon broke away from this distant control and founded one of the world's most advanced societies at the time, along with Baghdad in the eastern Mediterranean.
Between andthe Emirate of Sicily was one of the major centres of Islamic culture in the Mediterranean. After its conquest by the Normans the island developed its own distinct culture with the fusion of Arab, Western, and Byzantine influences.
Palermo remained a leading artistic and commercial centre of the Mediterranean well into the Middle Ages. Motivated by religion and conquest, the kings of Europe launched a number of Crusades to try to roll back Muslim power and retake the Holy Land.
The Crusades were unsuccessful but were far more effective in weakening the already tottering Byzantine Empire.
They also rearranged the balance of power in the Muslim world as Egypt once again emerged as a major power. Islamic culture and science[ edit ] Main articles: Religion always played a prevalent role in Middle Eastern culture, affecting learning, architecture, and the ebb and flow of cultures.
When Muhammad introduced Islam, it jump-started Middle Eastern culture, inspiring achievements in architecturethe revival of old advances in science and technology, and the formation of a distinct way of life. Islam also created the need for spectacularly built mosques which created a distinct form of architecture.
Islam unified the Middle East and helped the empires there to remain stable. This created a mix of cultures, especially in Africa, and the mawali demographic. Although the mawali would experience discrimination from the Umayyad, they would gain widespread acceptance from the Abbasids and it was because of this that allowed for mass conversions in foreign areas.
Muslims saved and spread Greek advances in medicinealgebrageometryastronomyanatomyand ethics that would later finds it way back to Western Europe. The works of AristotleGalenHippocratesPtolemyand Euclid were saved and distributed throughout the empire and eventually into Europe in this manner.
Muslim scholars also discovered the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in their conquests of south Asia. The use of this system in Muslim trade and political institutions allowed for the eventual popularization of it around the world; this number system would be critical to the Scientific revolution in Europe.
Muslim intellectuals would become experts in chemistryopticsand mapmaking during the Abbasid Caliphate. In the arts, Abbasid architecture expanded upon Umayyad architecturewith larger and more extravagant mosques. Persian literature grew based on ethical values.
Astronomy was stressed in art. Much of this learning would find its way to the West. This was especially true during the crusades, as warriors would bring back Muslim treasures, weapons, and medicinal methods.
CrusadesHistory of the LevantMongol conquestsand History of Jerusalem The dominance of the Arabs came to a sudden end in the midth century with the arrival of the Seljuq Turksmigrating south from the Turkic homelands in Central Asia.
Egypt held out under the Fatimid caliphs untilwhen it too fell to the Turks. Despite massive territorial losses in the 7th century, the Christian Byzantine Empire continued to be a potent military and economic force in the Mediterranean, preventing Arab expansion into much of Europe.
The Seljuqs' defeat of the Byzantine military in the Battle of Manzikert in the 11th century and settling in Anatolia effectively marked the end of Byzantine power. The Seljuks ruled most of the Middle East region for the next years, but their empire soon broke up into a number of smaller sultanates.
Christian Western Europe staged a remarkable economic and demographic recovery in the 11th century since its nadir in the 7th century. The fragmentation of the Middle East allowed joined forces, mainly from England, France, and the emerging Holy Roman Empireto enter the region.
In the knights of the First Crusade captured Jerusalem and founded the Kingdom of Jerusalemwhich survived untilwhen Saladin retook the city. Smaller crusader fiefdoms survived until His absence resulted in the first defeat of the Mongols by the Mamluk Egyptians during the Battle of Ain Jalut in Additionally, societal clashing occurred between traditionalists who wished to retain their nomadic culture and Mongols moving towards sedentary agriculture.
All of this led to the fragmentation of the empire in The Mongols eventually retreated inbut the chaos that ensued throughout the empire deposed the Seljuq Turks.May 30, · The border between Gaza and Israel has once again become the focal point for clashes between protesters and Israeli troops, as Palestinians commemorate the anniversary of .
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