Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. Hard water causes many problems in both the household and the industrial world. One of the largest problems with hard water is that it tends to leave a residue when it evaporates.
For example, carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is dissolved in water, and, through a series of chemical reactions, contributes to the total dissolved carbon in waters—primarily bicarbonate HCO Gas solubility is inversely proportional to temperature and TDS. For example, dissolved oxygen solubility is shown as a function of temperature and salinity in Figure 1.
These are maximum concentrations, but natural waters can have lower dissolved oxygen concentrations as the result of biological activity such as the metabolism of water inhabitants, including bacteria. Photosynthesis of algae and aqueous plants can add oxygen to the water in which these primary producers grow.
However, the breakdown of organic material by bacteria consumes dissolved oxygen. Thus, in waters below the surface wind-mixed layer usually tens of meters or more or in stably stratified lakes or bays, for which rates of oxygen replenishment to deeper depths are slow, deficiencies in dissolved oxygen can develop, with anoxia total depletion of dissolved oxygen at the extreme.
Excess nutrient supply can have the same impact on a water body eutrophication: Seawater typically has a salinity of 35 parts per thousand, whereas fresh water is near 0 parts per thousand.
Once you are ready, answer the questions in the spaces provided below. Click the "Click for answer" button to check your answer.
Animate the map for dissolved oxygen in surface waters for the past year a clickable link. Watch the eastern half of the U. Why does DO in this region vary the way it does e. Oxygen concentration varies seasonally with temperature.
Lower concentrations occur during times of warmer temperature when oxygen solubility is lower and demand by respiration of organisms is higher. In the winter, solubility is higher and demand lower so concentrations peak. Click on the map for nitrate.
Notice that there are many fewer stations with such data because it is more difficult to routinely measure nitrate concentrations. The available stations are probably mostly monitored because the waterways are in some way impaired. What are the states three with highest nitrate concentrations?
Speculate as to the possible causes s of high nitrate in waterways in these states. InIllinois, Iowa, and Missouri had the highest nitrate levels. Most likely this is due to agricultural runoff fertilizers in these dominantly agricultural states. Click on the State of Iowa.Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
We have now placed Twitpic in an archived state. CONCEPT. Convection is the name for a means of heat transfer, as distinguished from conduction and radiation. It is also a term that describes processes affecting the atmosphere, waters, and solid earth. The Private Eye is an interdisciplinary hands-on curriculum using a jeweler's loupe and inquiry method to accelerate creativity, literacy, scientific literacy, problem-solving and .
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Pipelines are commonly used in the oil and gas industry for the transportation of hydrocarbon either processed or unprocessed.
In some cases, a line transporting processed hydrocarbon from a processing plant to a point of use, while in other cases, a line transporting unprocessed hydrocarbon from a remote gathering point to a processing plant. HBCU Scholarships.
HBCUPages has a huge listing of African American Scholarships! Our minority scholarships are listed by major, by organization, by name and we have a listing of hbcu scholarships offered at historically black colleges and universities.
Included: chemistry essay informative essay process essay content. Preview text: The purpose of this experiment is to explore the hardness of the water on campus.
Hard water has been a problem for hundreds of years. One of the earliest references to the hardness or softness of water is in Hippocrates discourse on water quality in.