Psychopathology and the study of antisocial personality disorder

Enter terms Psychological treatments for people with antisocial personality disorder Antisocial personality disorder is a condition that leads to persistent rule-breaking, criminality, and drug or alcohol misuse. This review systematically examines the evidence for the effectiveness of psychological treatments used to help people with antisocial personality disorder. We considered 11 studies, but were unable to draw any firm conclusions from the evidence available.

Psychopathology and the study of antisocial personality disorder

Antisocial personality disorder - Wikipedia

Treatment, Management and Prevention. British Psychological Society; In the early s clinicians attempted to understand criminals whose offences were so abhorrent that they were thought to be insane, yet their clinical presentations were not consistent with recognised mental syndromes.

The crux of the problem was that it was not possible to draw a meaningful line between two forms of deviance from the norm: This may be seen as a precursor for modern diagnostic concepts in psychiatry, which place emphasis on the distress or impairment resulting from disorders for example, in DSM and ICD.

In the US, Cleckley and McCord and McCord further pushed the notion of the psychopathic personality as a distinct clinical entity, and established its core criteria around antisocial behaviours in particular, aggressive acts.

Inthe term psychopathic disorder was incorporated into the Mental Health Act in the UK, which made it possible for patients to be admitted to hospital compulsorily. Alongside the ambiguity contained in the UK legislation, there is considerable ambivalence among mental health professionals towards those with personality disorder in general but particularly towards those with antisocial personality disorder.

Others believe that those with the disorder are better and more appropriately managed by the criminal justice system. The alternative view is that individuals with antisocial personality disorder are not only likely to infringe societal norms but also to have complex health needs that ought to be identified and addressed, either within or alongside the criminal justice system.

These tensions are evident across all aspects of the disorder, but especially regarding diagnosis. This has led to the belief that antisocial personality disorder and its variants may be over-diagnosed in certain settings, such as prison, and under-diagnosed in the community Lilienfeld, ; Ogloff, Moreover, a unique feature of antisocial personality disorder in DSM-IV is that it requires the individual to meet diagnostic criteria, not only as an adult, but also as a child or adolescent.

This has led to concern that some children might be labelled as having a personality disorder before their personality has properly developed. Perhaps, most importantly, the individual personality disorder diagnoses in DSM-IV do not help practitioners to make treatment decisions; as a result practitioners have to focus on the specific components of personality disorder such as impulsivity or affective instability rather than on the global diagnosis when deciding on which intervention to use Livesley, Despite these difficulties, there is growing evidence from prospective longitudinal follow-up studies that identify a number of children whose conduct disorder with aggressive behaviour persists into adulthood, thereby justifying the approach of DSM to antisocial personality disorder Robins et al.

However, it should be noted that some of this continuity is potentially artefactual, that is, it is a product of the fact that individuals need a diagnosis of conduct disorder before they can have one of antisocial personality disorder.

Personality and psychopathology

Nevertheless, this suggests that early intervention in children and adolescents may be effective in preventing the later development of antisocial personality disorder in adulthood.

As described below, antisocial personality disorder is frequently found to be comorbid with a number of other mental disorders. Hence, an important aspect of this guideline is recognising how antisocial personality disorder might negatively moderate the response to conventional interventions offered for frequently co-occurring conditions such as substance misuse, depression and other Axis I conditions Woody et al.

It does not, however, offer guidance on the separate management of these co-occurring conditions. Symptoms, presentation and pattern of disorder The diagnostic system DSM -IV, the preferred diagnostic system for this guideline see Section 2.

Because those with antisocial personality disorder exhibit traits of impulsivity, high negative emotionality and low conscientiousness, the condition is associated with a wide range of interpersonal and social disturbance.

While many of these traits may well be inherited, people with antisocial personality disorder also frequently grow up in fractured families where parental conflict is the norm and where parenting is often harsh and inconsistent.

This in turn often leads to school truancy, delinquent associates and substance misuse. Antisocial personality disorder is often associated with low educational attainment. These disadvantages frequently result in increased rates of unemployment, poor and unstable housing and inconsistency in relationships in adulthood.

Psychopathology and the study of antisocial personality disorder

Many are imprisoned or die prematurely as a result of reckless behaviour Swanson et al. Consequently, while criminal behaviour is central to the definition of antisocial personality disorderthis is often the culmination of previous and long-standing difficulties.

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Clearly, therefore, there is more to antisocial personality disorder than criminal behaviour, otherwise all of those convicted of a criminal offence would meet criteria for antisocial personality disorder and a diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder would be rare in those without a criminal history.

However, this is not the case. These data therefore show that the relationship between antisocial personality disorder and offending is not straightforward. This position is further strengthened when data on people with personality disorder including those in the community are examined by factor analysis.

However, this higher order antisocial factor is more broadly described than in DSM and includes narcissistic, paranoid and histrionic traits as well as the more traditionally described antisocial personality disorder items such as conduct disorder and criminality.

Psychopathography of Adolf Hitler - Wikipedia Commission of crime and hostility and their forensic consequences in a patient with schizophrenia can worsen the patient's condition and disturb his family, society, and even the psychiatrist. Based on previous research, patients with schizophrenia are at a higher risk for crime.

For many clinicians, this broader description of antisocial personality disorder carries greater conviction than the more behaviourally-based criteria in DSM.

Despite disagreements and confusion regarding the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorderthere is a commonly held view that the strict personality component is characterised by a set of common traits including irresponsible and exploitative behaviour, recklessness, impulsivity and deceitfulness Livesley, Benjamin has expanded on these features and delineates a characterisation that seeks to provide a description of the internal mental mechanisms at play in the disorder.

She describes the core features of those with antisocial personality disorder as consisting of: There is a strong need to be independent, to resist being controlled by others, who are usually held in contempt. There is a willingness to use untamed aggression to back up the need for control or independence.

The [ antisocial personality ] usually presents in a friendly, sociable manner, but that friendliness is always accompanied by a baseline position of detachment.

Benjamin,p. Millon and Davis offer useful guidance: This pattern is similar to, yet different, than seen in narcissists, where an unjustified self-confidence assumes that all that is desired will come to them with minimal effort on their part.

The antisocial assumes the contrary.The present findings support the position that general factors of psychopathology, personality disorder, and personality are likely to entail a common individual differences continuum, which may impact on how these general factors are to be understood.

Antisocial personality disorder - Diagnosis and treatment. Relationship ofChild Psychopathology to Parental Alcoholism and Antisocial Personality Disorder SAMUEL KUPERMAN, M.D.. STEVEN S. SCHLOSSER, MAT.,]AMA LIDRAL, noses of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and/or DPS and lowsocioeconomic status (SES).

In a study published in in the journal Assessment, a team of researchers from Florida State University compared the criteria for antisocial personality disorder to the personality traits associated with psychopathy.

In a study published in in the journal Assessment, a team of researchers from Florida State University compared the criteria for antisocial personality disorder to the personality traits associated with psychopathy. These researchers concluded that the antisocial personality disorder definition captures many of the deviant or abnormal. Also known as sociopathic disorder or psychopathy, the antisocial personality is a dramatic/erratic personality from cluster B. Antisocial personality disorder is a severe mental illness where a person not only has trouble with recognizing and connecting with situations and people, but their behavior and ways of thinking are abnormal and destructive (, ). borderline personality disorder is largely a disorder of neuroticism, including such traits as emotionally unstable, vulnerable, overwhelmed, rageful, depressive, and self-destructive. - Instability in interpersonal relationships, self-image, affects, and marked impulsivity.

These researchers concluded that the antisocial personality disorder definition captures many of the deviant or abnormal. Antisocial personality disorder (AsPD) is one of the ten personality disorder categories in the current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV; APA ).

Antisocial personality disorder is best understood within the context of the broader category of personality disorders.

Psychological treatments for people with antisocial personality disorder | Cochrane