DrysdaleIn Fungal Infections Perhaps you have heard of people using bleach for toenail fungus onychomycosis. This is a home remedy that used to be more popular but it has been largely replaced by prescription medications and commercial home remedies. The downside of home bleach treatment is that it requires twenty to thirty minutes every day, a time commitment that many people find difficult. On the other hand, using bleach for toenail fungus is much cheaper than almost any kind of remedy specifically marketed for onychomycosis, and most people already have some with their laundry supplies.
Human genetic variationRace and geneticsand Human genetic clustering The understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying human skin color variation is still incomplete, however genetic studies have discovered a number of genes that affect human skin color in specific populations, and have shown that this happens independently of other physical features such as eye and hair color.
Different populations have different allele frequencies of these genes, and it is the combination of these allele variations that bring about the complex, continuous variation in skin coloration we can observe today in modern humans. Population and admixture studies suggest a 3-way model for the evolution of human skin color, with dark skin evolving in early hominids in sub-Saharan Africa and light skin evolving independently in Europe and East Asia after modern humans had expanded out of Africa.
Dark skin All modern humans share a common ancestor who lived aroundyears ago in Africa. Research shows at least 10 differences in MC1R between African and chimpanzee samples and that the gene has probably undergone a strong positive selection a selective sweep in early Hominins around 1.
Light skin For the most part, the evolution of light skin has followed different genetic paths in European and East Asian populations. They are thought to have originated after humans spread out of Africa but before the divergence of the European and Asian lineages around 30, years ago.
Studies have found two alleles in the vicinity of ASIP are associated with skin color variation in humans. One, rs  has been identified as an indicator of skin reflectance in a forensics analysis of human phenotypes across Caucasian, African-American, South Asian, East Asian, Hispanic and Native American populations  and is about 3 times more common in non-African populations than in Africa.
A variation in TYR has also been identified as a contributor. Research indicates the selection for the light-skin alleles of these genes in Europeans is comparatively recent, having occurred later than 20, years ago and perhaps as recently as 12, to 6, years ago.
Neolithic farmers entering Europe at around the same time were intermediate, being nearly fixed for the derived SLC24A5 variant but only having the derived SLC45A2 allele in low frequencies.
The SLC24A5 variant spread very rapidly throughout central and southern Europe from about 8, years ago, whereas the light skin variant of SLC45A2 spread throughout Europe after 5, years ago. Solute carrier family 24 member 5 SLC24A5 regulates calcium in melanocytes and is important in the process of melanogenesis.
It has also been shown to be one of the significant components of the skin color of modern Europeans through its PheLeu rs  allele that has been directly correlated with skin color variation in mixed-race populations.
East Asia[ edit ] A number of genes known to affect skin color have alleles that show signs of positive selection in East Asian populations. Tanning response[ edit ] Tanning response in humans is controlled by a variety of genes.
All human babies are born pale, regardless of what their adult color will be. In humans, melanin production does not peak until after puberty. In some people, the armpits become slightly darker during puberty. The interaction of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors on skin coloration with age is still not adequately understood, but it is known that men are at their darkest baseline skin color around the age of 30, without considering the effects of tanning.
Around the same age, women experience darkening of some areas of their skin. The skin of face and hands has about twice the amount of pigment cells as unexposed areas of the body, as chronic exposure to the sun continues to stimulate melanocytes.
The blotchy appearance of skin color in the face and hands of older people is due to the uneven distribution of pigment cells and to changes in the interaction between melanocytes and keratinocytes.
Breastfeeding newborns, whose skeletons are growing, require high amounts of calcium intake from the mother's milk about 4 times more than during prenatal development part of which comes from reserves in the mother's skeleton.
Adequate vitamin D resources are needed to absorb calcium from the diet, and it has been shown that deficiencies of vitamin D and calcium increase the likelihood of various birth defects such as spina bifida and rickets.
Natural selection has led to females with lighter skin than males in all indigenous populations because women must get enough vitamin D and calcium to support the development of fetus and nursing infant and to maintain their own health.
Men and women are not born with different skin color, they begin to diverge during puberty with the influence of sex hormones. Skin may either appear lighter, or darker than normal, or lack pigmentation at all; there may be blotchy, uneven areas, patches of brown to gray discoloration or freckling.
Apart from blood-related conditions such as jaundicecarotenosisor argyriaskin pigmentation disorders generally occur because the body produces either too much or too little melanin.
Depigmentation Various types of albinism are a result of genetic mutations affecting different parts of the melanin production pathway. In a person with albinism, melanocytes can be entirely absent, or fail to produce melanin, or melanosomes can fail to mature and be transferred to keranocytes.
The ability to produce melanin in patches around the body is a condition known as vitiligo. Albinism[ edit ] Some types of albinism affect only the skin and hair, while other types affect the skin, hair and eyes, and in rare cases only the eyes. All of them are caused by different genetic mutations.
Albinism is a recessively inherited trait in humans where both pigmented parents may be carriers of the gene and pass it down to their children.Physical Beauty Versus Inner Beauty - Beauty is a concept.
An idea that changes from person to person. We put on makeup, do our hair, paint our nails, and buy the latest clothing in an effort to satisfy those around us and conform to their idea of physical beauty.
Research highlights of Nature research journals. Nov Serpentine spiral conceals massive binary star system Nature Astronomy. Nov Power spent in . First off the all have filters on. not one of them have skin that smooth. kandi girl you know that aint how you look without makeup during your essence cover shoot bravo show you without makeup and girl, my god be with todd during the magic hour.
sharee stop it with the soft light filter you look like a baby lama im that pic when you know damn well you suppose to look like a hard batter and. Divine Derriere Skin Lightening 2% Hydroquinone Bleaching Cream with 6% AHA Glycolic Acid and Lactic Acid - Fade Dark Spots, Freckles, Hyperpigmentation, Melasma and Discolorations.
oz. The complicated psychology of why some people obsessively tan and why others use bleaching products to lighten their skin. where Choma has studied skin bleaching, all in an effort to meet unrealistic beauty standards.
In her . Skin Bleaching Epidemic: Bleaching for Beauty Introduction to Sociology, Dr. Max Orezzoli November 21, Skin Bleaching is defined as a practice of using chemical substances in attempt to lighten skin tone or provide an even skin complexion by lessening the concentration of melanin.