The health and safety of the children served shall be of paramount concern. The prevention and intervention should engage families in constructive, supportive, and nonadversarial relationships.
However, these same features can provide opportunities for misconduct in science, questionable research practices, and other misconduct.
Individual scientists bear the primary responsibility for the conduct of their research, but local research institutions and sponsoring organizations also have responsibilities, in addition to implementing fair, sound, and well-defined mechanisms to investigate allegations of misconduct in science.
Research institutions strive Organizational behavior chapter 6 brief summary provide a climate that encourages responsible practices and discourages questionable research practices. The challenge to research institutions is to aid faculty in establishing effective systems of values and social controls, to provide individuals with opportunities and incentives to develop and implement these systems, and to safeguard the traditions that foster scientific creativity.
Institutional efforts to encourage responsible research practices have been stimulated by the following factors: Growth and diversification of research, creating situations likely to be sources of increasing disputes about appropriate forms of re- Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Responsible Science, Volume I: Ensuring the Integrity of the Research Process.
The National Academies Press. In addition to relying on traditional methods of individual instruction and professional example, research institutions are seeking more explicit ways to aid their members' efforts to discriminate between acceptable and unacceptable research practices.
Scientists and the public in general are likely to grow dissatisfied with self-serving research practices that erode communal values and standards.
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|OSEP Technical Assistance Center||Promoting behavioral success in schools: Commentary on exemplary practices The articles in this special Practitioner's Edition of Psychology in the Schools share the application of sound educational and behavioral practices in real school and classroom contexts.|
Regulations requiring institutions that receive research funds from the Public Health Service PHS to establish an environment that discourages misconduct in science.
Some research institutions have sought to develop educational programs or guidelines intended to foster responsible research practices. The effectiveness, desirability, and need for such programs and guidelines have been debated and discussed within the research community.
Although many advocate expansion of the research institution's role in fostering responsible research practices, others—often individual faculty members —have expressed caution based on the following assumptions: Institutional efforts designed to foster integrity in the research environment may be misinterpreted as an admission that the system is not working well or that faculty are not exercising their responsibilities.
Institution-wide programs designed to encourage responsible research practices may weaken individual and departmental efforts to achieve the same goals. Institutional programs may all too easily intrude on and replace the more personal—and possibly more effective—efforts of individual scientists who regard the fostering of scientific responsibility as a professional obligation.
Self-imposed institutional guidelines or educational programs may encourage government to utilize this mechanism for inappropriate oversight. Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: As mentors, practicing scientists often impart these values to their students and associates, who thus can learn through direct guidance and also by example the customs of responsible research practice.
But formal or explicit definition of standards governing the responsible conduct of research is infrequent. Benefits of Education in Ethics Although data reviewed in Chapter 4 indicate that young investigators or students are perhaps less likely than older researchers to engage in misconduct in science—in fact, many cases of misconduct have involved senior researchers—early education can be a primary means of instilling responsible practices.
Studies in the literature on ethics education suggest that ethical development is not complete or fixed by the time students go to graduate school Rest, Thus, although ethics education alone is unlikely to change individual moral character, teaching ethics in a professional setting can foster awareness and can reinforce the importance of actions that constitute appropriate behavior in the conduct of research.
For example, informal and formal discussions of genuine ethical problems that arise in the research environment—such as the allocation of credit for a collaborative effort that involves specialized contributions —can teach both students and faculty about the significance and consequences of alternate responses to difficult situations.
Moreover, the public nature of educational discussions can create a climate that may discourage individuals from engaging in questionable practices, as students and colleagues examine the potential harm that such practices can cause.
Regularly held graduate seminars, faculty colloquia, and informal discussions in the laboratory and the classroom can also provide opportunities to test perceptions of observed practices against the expected norms of science, can help all members of the research community to define and clarify the fundamental norms that guide research practice, can ameliorate misunderstandings that could escalate into unfounded accusations, and can stimulate open and frank consideration of conflicting values.
Exploring a case of poor authorship practices in the context of a classroom discussion of questionable research practices, for example, might be less threatening to a Page Share Cite Suggested Citation: Finally, education in research ethics can help all involved in the research process to become informed participants in the self-governance of the scientific community.
The ideal of informed participation is as important for members of the scientific community as it is for citizens of the larger political community.
Approaches to Teaching Ethics Various approaches can be adopted in teaching research ethics. One involves examining the special obligations scientists have by virtue of their expert knowledge and profession and clarifying how practices and standards may differ among disciplines or among institutions.
Instruction based on this approach could include discussions of standards of good practice, misconduct in science, questionable research practices, and other misconduct. Specific topics that should be addressed include the following: The necessity of honesty, skepticism, error correction, and verification in science; Principles of data selection, management, and storage, including rights and responsibilities with respect to sharing and granting access to research data, and the special status of data that support published findings; Publication practices, including the importance of timely and appropriate release of significant research findings and the harm that can result from premature or fragmentary publication of results or from publication in multiple forms; Authorship practices, particularly criteria for and obligations of authorship and the proper allocation of credit for specialized contributions; and Training and mentorship practices, including the responsibilities of supervision and the principles that guide collaboration between senior and junior personnel.
Some honorary and professional societies have prepared educational materials to encourage discussions of such topics. The National Academy of Sciences, for example, has published On Being a Scientist NAS,an essay written to instruct graduate students in the values and practices of scientists, and Sigma Xi has made its educational essay on ethics and science, Honor in Science Sigma Xi,widely available.organization behavior book by Mcshane & Von Glinow chapter 5 summary.
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