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Structural Methods The Grammar-Translation Method This foreign language teaching method is a structural method based on the traditional also called classical method of teaching Greek and Latin.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, an adult was considered mentally prepared for the world and its challenges only if the person had learned classical literature of the Greeks and Romans and mathematics.
The Goal The goal of the grammar-translation method was to make learners able to read and translate literary masterpieces and classics and not to speak a foreign language. It stayed in schools until the s including American schoolsbut the evolving teaching methodology found many weak points of this method and it was consequently replaced with the audio-lingual and direct method.
However, India, where a number of methods and techniques have evolved in foreign language teaching, this method is the oldest method of teaching and it is still in active use. Characteristics In this method, students strictly follow the textbook and translate sentences word for word in order to memorize abstract grammatical rules and exceptions and long bilingual vocabulary lists: The teacher translates from the foreign language into the mother tongue and the students from their mother tongue into the foreign language.
Grammar points are presented contextually in the textbook and explained by the teacher. The only exercised skill was reading but only in the context of translation. Disadvantages Because of these limited objectives, language professionals found more disadvantages in this method than advantages.
Namely, it is thought to be an unnatural method because it neglects the natural order of learning listening, speaking, reading and writing. It also neglects speech by placing very little or no attention to communicative aspects of the language.
Therefore, students lack an active role in the classroom and as a result, they fail to express themselves adequately in spoken language. Also, translating word for word is wrong because the exact translation is not always possible or correct.
Another disadvantage of this method is that it does not provide such practice to the learner that the person can internalize the patterns of a language to the extent to make it a habit. Positive and Negative Sides Note: Language learning means acquiring certain skills, which can be learned through practice of listening, speaking, reading and writing and not by just memorizing rules.
The Audio-Lingual Method In the audio-lingual method, students are taught directly in the target language without using their native language. New words and grammar are explained orally in the target language.
There is no explicit grammar instruction, just memorizing in form and practising a certain construction until it is used spontaneously. The innovation, however, was the use of the language laboratory or lab an audio or audio-visual installation aid.
In this context, the teacher presents the correct model of a sentence and the students repeat it. The language lab stayed in use in modern teaching, especially to practice listening comprehensions.
However, the students exposed to this method have almost no control on their own output and exactly this is in direct opposition to modern language teaching.
American soldiers were sent to war all over the world and there was a need to provide them with basic verbal communication skills. In addition, the launching of the first Russian satellite in motivated the Americans to give special attention to foreign language teaching in order to prevent possible isolation from scientific advances in the world.
The other two circumstances include: Skinner who believed that all behaviour language included was learnt through repetition and positive or negative reinforcement.
The prevailing scientific methods of the time were observation and repetition, conveniently suited for teaching masses.Foreign Language Teaching Methods focuses on 12 different aspects of language teaching, each taught by a different expert instructor.
The site contains video footage from an actual methods course held at the University of Texas at Austin. Our Middlebury Interactive online Spanish, French, German, and Mandarin Chinese courses utilize principles of the immersion pedagogy.
The courses deliver real-world reading, writing, listening, and speaking activities in a digital format and are aligned with national standards set by the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages (ACTFL).
It is one of widely used methods in teaching a foreign languages now. It can be used in all stages of teaching English to both young and aged learners. In presenting new words a teacher writes a new word on the blackboard. Alex Rawlings was a language teacher's dream. He fell in love with languages when he was eight and learnt Greek, then German, then Dutch.
Now, an undergraduate at Oxford, he is the UK's most multi.
5 interactive teaching styles that make a difference Now is the time to start bringing life into your teaching styles. Here are some of the most effective ways to engage your students. Thus, interactive methods are a useful and fruitful component in teaching a foreign language, due to their inherent advantages in developing communicative, cognitive, creative abilities of students, and also due to the possibility to form students’ continual interest in the foreign language culture of .