At first glance, memory seems something inert, stuck in the past - a memory of something that has happened and stopped in time. But a closer look reveals that memory is dynamic and connects the three temporal dimensions:
Assess time, place, person.
Organic brain disorders lose time first, then place, rarely person. Impaired in anxiety, fatigue, intoxication. Ask for 24 hour diet recall and other easily verifiable information.
Ask for past health, birthdays, anniversary, relevant history. Assess 4-word recall should be able to recall all four at 10 minutes and three words at 30 minutes. Judgement is impaired in mental retardation, emotional dysfunction, schizophrenia, and organic brain disease.
Visual hallucinations are often associated History and memory speech medications and organic syndromes. Auditory hallucinations are associated more with psychiatric disorders. Cranial Nerve Assessment Techniques Cranial Nerve I Olfactory After assessing patency of both nares, have client close eyes, obstruct one nare, and sniff.
Use common, easily identifiable substances such as coffee, toothpaste, orange, vanilla, soap, or peppermint.
Use different substances for each side. Bilateral decreased sense of smell occurs with age, tobacco smoking, allergic rhinitis, cocaine use. Unilateral loss of sense of smell neurologic anosmia can indicate a frontal lobe lesion.
Cranial Nerve II Optic Check visual acuity have the patient read newspaper print and visual fields for each eye. Unilateral blindness can indicate a lesion or pressure in the globe or optic nerve. Loss of the same half of the visual field in both eyes homonymous hemianopsia can indicate a lesion of the opposite side optic tract as in a CVA.
If the eyes will not do this the patient may have a fracture of the eye orbit or a brain stem tumor. Sensory — Have patient close eyes, touch cotton ball to all areas of face.
Unilateral deficit seen with trauma and tumors. Cranial Nerve VII Facial Motor Check symmetry and mobility of face by having patient frown, close eyes, lift eyebrows, and puff cheeks. Impairment indicates inflammation or occlusion of the ear canal, drug toxicity, or a possible tumor.
Uvula and soft palate should rise. Gag reflex should be present and the voice should sound smooth. Deficits can indicate a brain stem tumor or neck injury.
If the patient is unable to do this it may indicate a neck injury. Wasting of the tongue, deviation to one side, tremors, and an inability to distinctly say l,t,d,n sounds can indicate a lower or upper motor neuron lesion.
Reflex Testing When you strike a slightly stretched tendon with a reflex hammer, a simple muscle contraction occurs. What kind of information do deep tendon reflexes DTRs give the examiner?
DTRs assist with evaluation of lower motor neurons and fibers. There are five reflexes to check which include: With the patient sitting, flex his arm at the elbow and rest his forearm on his thigh with the palm up.
Place your thumb firmly on the biceps tendon in the antecubital fossa. Strike your thumb with the hammer.Sometimes a person will have memory loss as part of more general problems, such as in dementia where a person may have difficulty with memory as well as difficulty with speech. Acceptance Speech Prize presentation Interview Nobel Symposia Other resources The Nobel Peace Prize despair and memory.
the dead are ordered back to their graves. But for the first time in history, we could not bury our dead.
We bear their graves . Memory Specific purpose: to increase my audience's understanding of how memory functions and how it affects them. Central idea: Memory is a process of the brain which is prone to certain failures, although specific steps can be taken to guard against these failures.
Ms. Reardon talked about her book [Pickett's Charge in History and Memory], published by University of North Carolina Press. Ms.
Reardon talked about her book [Pickett's Charge in History and Memory], published by University of North Carolina Press. Speech – Reflection on History and Memory Throughout time, perspectives of history and memory have changed.
They have been moulded by the events of our time as well as the texts and we read.