Ayaan Hirsi Ali Everyone followed the cartoon crisis, or the crisis about the cartoon drawings of Mohammed in Denmark. That led to an explosion of violence because large groups of Muslims still will not accept criticism of their religion. Over and over again, when in the name of Islam, human blood is shed, Muslims are very quiet.
Friedrich noted in his family journal: On Sunday 21 June [ NS: He was given free access to it from the age of seven.
While Leibniz's schoolwork was largely confined to the study of a small canon of authorities, his father's library enabled him to study a wide variety of advanced philosophical and theological works—ones that he would not have otherwise been able to read until his college years.
He also composed hexameters of Latin versein a single morning, for a special event at school at the age of He defended his Disputatio Metaphysica de Principio Individui Metaphysical Disputation on the Principle of Individuation which addressed the principle of individuationon 9 June Leibniz earned his master's degree in Philosophy on 7 February He published and defended a dissertation Specimen Quaestionum Philosophicarum ex Jure collectarum An Essay of Collected Philosophical Problems of Right arguing for both a theoretical and a pedagogical relationship between philosophy and law, in December After one year of legal studies, he was awarded his bachelor's degree in Law on 28 September Inthe University of Leipzig turned down Leibniz's doctoral application and refused to grant him a Doctorate in Law, most likely due to his relative youth.
He next declined the offer of an academic appointment at Altdorf, saying that "my thoughts were turned in an entirely different direction". Many posthumously published editions of his writings presented his name on the title page as " Freiherr G.
Leibniz then dedicated an essay on law to the Elector in the hope of obtaining employment. The stratagem worked; the Elector asked Leibniz to assist with the redrafting of the legal code for the Electorate.
Although von Boyneburg died late inLeibniz remained under the employment of his widow until she dismissed him in After Leibniz's service to the Elector there soon followed a diplomatic role.
He published an essay, under the pseudonym of a fictitious Polish nobleman, arguing unsuccessfully for the German candidate for the Polish crown.
The main force in European geopolitics during Leibniz's adult life was the ambition of Louis XIV of Francebacked by French military and economic might.
Meanwhile, the Thirty Years' War had left German-speaking Europe exhausted, fragmented, and economically backward. Leibniz proposed to protect German-speaking Europe by distracting Louis as follows.
France would be invited to take Egypt as a stepping stone towards an eventual conquest of the Dutch East Indies. In return, France would agree to leave Germany and the Netherlands undisturbed.
This plan obtained the Elector's cautious support. Inthe French government invited Leibniz to Paris for discussion,  but the plan was soon overtaken by the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War and became irrelevant. Napoleon's failed invasion of Egypt in can be seen as an unwitting, late implementation of Leibniz's plan, after the Eastern hemisphere colonial supremacy in Europe had already passed from the Dutch to the British.
Soon after arriving, he met Dutch physicist and mathematician Christiaan Huygens and realised that his own knowledge of mathematics and physics was patchy.
With Huygens as his mentor, he began a program of self-study that soon pushed him to making major contributions to both subjects, including discovering his version of the differential and integral calculus. He met Nicolas Malebranche and Antoine Arnauldthe leading French philosophers of the day, and studied the writings of Descartes and Pascalunpublished as well as published.
Stepped reckoner When it became clear that France would not implement its part of Leibniz's Egyptian plan, the Elector sent his nephew, escorted by Leibniz, on a related mission to the English government in London, early in He met with the Royal Society where he demonstrated a calculating machine that he had designed and had been building since The machine was able to execute all four basic operations adding, subtracting, multiplying, and dividingand the society quickly made him an external member.
The mission ended abruptly when news of the Elector's death 12 February reached them. Leibniz promptly returned to Paris and not, as had been planned, to Mainz. In this regard, a invitation from the John Frederick of Brunswick to visit Hanover proved to have been fateful.
Leibniz had declined the invitation, but had begun corresponding with the duke in Inthe duke offered Leibniz the post of counsellor. Leibniz very reluctantly accepted the position two years later, only after it became clear that no employment in Paris, whose intellectual stimulation he relished, or with the Habsburg imperial court, was forthcoming.
He left Paris in October House of Hanover, —[ edit ] This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources.
Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. January Learn how and when to remove this template message Leibniz managed to delay his arrival in Hanover until the end of after making one more short journey to London, where Newton accused him of having seen Newton's unpublished work on calculus in advance.
On the journey from London to Hanover, Leibniz stopped in The Hague where he met van Leeuwenhoekthe discoverer of microorganisms. He also spent several days in intense discussion with Spinozawho had just completed his masterwork, the Ethics. Leibniz served three consecutive rulers of the House of Brunswick as historian, political adviser, and most consequentially, as librarian of the ducal library.Books at Amazon.
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