Saul McLeodpublished The levels of processing model Craik and Lockhart, focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last.
Saul McLeodpublished The levels of processing model Craik and Lockhart, focuses on the depth of processing involved in memory, and predicts the deeper information is processed, the longer a memory trace will last. Craik defined depth as: The basic idea is that memory is really just what happens as a result of processing information.
Memory is just a by-product of the depth of processing of information, and there is no clear distinction between short term and long term memory. We can process information in 3 ways: Shallow Processing - This takes two forms 1.
Structural processing appearance which is when we encode only the physical qualities of something. Phonemic processing — which is when we encode its sound. Shallow processing only involves maintenance rehearsal repetition to help us hold something in the STM and leads to fairly short-term retention of information.
This is the only type of rehearsal to take place within the multi-store model. Deep Processing - This involves 3. Semantic processing, which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. Deep processing involves elaboration rehearsal which involves a more meaningful analysis e.
For example, giving words a meaning or linking them with previous knowledge. Summary Levels of processing: The idea that the way information is encoded affects how well it is remembered. The deeper the level of processing, the easier the information is to recall.
Craik and Tulving Aim To investigate how deep and shallow processing affects memory recall.
Method Participants were presented with a series of 60 words about which they had to answer one of three questions. Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way e.
Participants were then given a long list of words into which the original words had been mixed. They were asked to pick out the original words. Results Participants recalled more words that were semantically processed compared to phonemically and visually processed words.
Conclusion Semantically processed words involve elaboration rehearsal and deep processing which results in more accurate recall. Phonemic and visually processed words involve shallow processing and less accurate recall.
Real Life Applications This explanation of memory is useful in everyday life because it highlights the way in which elaboration, which requires deeper processing of information, can aid memory.
Three examples of this are. The above examples could all be used to revise psychology using semantic processing e. Consequently more information will be remembered and recalled and better exam results should be achieved.In the present experiment, levels of processing were measured through three conditions: physical (does the word have four letters), rhyming (do two words rhyme) and semantics (does a word fit into a sentence).
EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVEL PROCESSING ON RETENTION For example, when the subject was to answer two questions at the Sh level his answer sheet contained (from Table 1) numbers 1 and 2 from the shallow set. A shallow processing question example would be "Is the word in upper case letters?", while an intermediate processing question was "Does the word rhyme with weight?".
A series of ten experiments demonstrated consistently better memory for . general, deeper encodings took longer to accomplish and were associated with higher levels of performance on the subsequent memory test.
Also, questions lead-ing to positive responses were associated with higher retention levels than questions leading to negative responses, at least at deeper levels of encoding.
Start studying Cognitive Psychology Chapter 7. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. What is a levels of processing effect? deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis it shows that deeper levels of processing don.
The levels-of-processing effect, identified by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart in , describes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing.
Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis.