After spending five years in the army during the Napoleonic Wars, Austin turned to law and spent seven unhappy years practising at the Chancery bar.
Download this page in PDF format A figure An essay on the philosopher st obscured by the mists of history, American soldier and trader John Cleves Symmes enjoyed his moment of fame—and marked his place in the venerable rolls of nineteenth-century eccentrics—on 10 April On that day he mailed out from St.
I declare the earth is hollow, and habitable within; containing a number of solid concentrick spheres, one within the other, and that it is open at the poles 12 or 16 degrees; I pledge my life in support of this truth, and am ready to explore the hollow, if the world will support and aid me in the undertaking.
Of Ohio, Late Captain of Infantry. My terms are the patronage of this and the new worlds. I dedicate my labours to my Wife and her ten Children. I select Doctor S.
Davy, and Baron Alex. I ask one hundred brave companions, well equipped, to start from Siberia in the fall season, with Reindeer and sleighs, on the ice of the frozen sea: I engage we find a warm and rich land, stocked with thrifty vegetables and animals if not men, on reaching one degree northward of latitude 82; we will return in the succeeding spring.
Symmes wisely attached to his appeal a certificate attesting to his mental soundness. Unfortunately, aside from a few letters to newspapers and some lecture notes that he referred to collectively as his memoirs, Symmes never published any comprehensive account of his hollow-earth theories.
Like a modern-day Socrates, he left that task to an admiring student while he hit the public lecture circuit. The extraordinary breadth and diversity of the eighty-plus papers Halley published in the Philosophical Transactions PThowever, signal a prodigious intellectual fertility.
Where is the second set of poles located, and how do they operate reciprocally with the North and South Poles to influence the compass in such extraordinary ways? The earth is structured as a globe-within-a-globe, Halley proposes, both moving together in the same diurnal rotation but at slightly different velocities.
A liquid or hydraulic substance separates the spheres, enabling their divergent axial motions: Halley outlines four possible objections to his hollow-earth theory and addresses each individually. In this analogy—to which Symmes himself was to turn in when first contemplating the existence of a hollow earth—Halley appeals to the comparatively recent observations of Saturn made by Christiaan Huygens and Giovanni Cassini between the s and s, which determined that the sixth planet is surrounded by a thin, flat ring composed of multiple smaller rings separated by gaps.
Which leaves the fourth and, for Halley and his contemporaries, the most consequential of concerns: What benefit or avail could a hollow earth have for terrestrial inhabitants who are insensible of it and whose felicity and health appear to be wholly independent of it?
In short, for what or whom was it designed? As the corporeal expression of divine intelligence, earth testifies in every detail of its structure to the expedience of providential design: Halley speaks at some length, therefore, about the numinous instrumentality of inner space.
Another Argument favouring this Hypothesis is drawn from a Proposition of … Mr. Newton, where he determines the force wherewith the Moon moves the Sea in producing the Tides. Now if the Moon be more solid than the Earth as 9 to 5, why may we not reasonably suppose the Moon, being a small Body and a Secondary Planet, to be solid Earth, Water, and Stone, and this Globe to consist of the same Materials, only four ninths thereof to be Cavity, within and between the internal Spheres: Such a fantastic suggestion can be entertained if we inquire further into the nature of the fluid or ether that separates the inner globe or, now, globes from the outer, an as-yet unknown, magnetically-charged medium that may well produce its own vivifying light: To those that shall enquire of what use these included Globes can be, it must be allowed, that they can be of very little service to the Inhabitants of this outward World.
Why may not we rather suppose that the exceeding small quantity of solid Matter in respect of the fluid Ether, is so disposed by the Almighty Wisdom as to yield as great a Surface for the use of living Creatures as can consist with the conveniency and security of the whole?
That supposed the Earth to be concave, with a lesser Globe included, in order to make that inner Globe capable of being inhabited, there might not improbably be contained some luminous Medium between the Balls, so as to make a perpetual Day below. And if such a Medium should be thus inclosed within us; what should hinder but we may be allowed to suppose that some parts of this lucid Substance may, on very rare and extraordinary Occasions, transude through and penetrate the Cortex of our Earth?
He never invests the yolky interior with an animating principle: But this ornately-conceived volcanic world is anything but livable. In contrast Halley, who would have been familiar with these models, was unique for grounding his theory of a multi-sphered hollow earth in Newtonian physics and for making it habitable.
The hollow-earth idea inhabits its own particular niche in the very origins of American intellectual modernity. Mather opened the door to the development of an indigenous strain of hollow-earth thought and belief in the land of his birth.
How astonishing are the Dimensions of them! How stupendous are the Displays of thy Greatness, and of thy Glory, in the Creatures, with which thou hast replenished those Worlds!This essay revisits the infamous publication of American trader and soldier John Cleves Symmes’s “No.
1 Circular” from St. Louis Missouri in , tracing the roots of Symmes.
Huineng (Hui-neng) (—) Huineng a seminal figure in Buddhist lausannecongress2018.com is the famous “Sixth Patriarch” of the Chan or meditation tradition, which is better known in Japanese as "Zen"). Disclaimer: This essay has been submitted by a student.
This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. This is not an example of the work written by our professional essay writers. He was disappointed by the Platonic philosophy and Manichean theology and then found his rest in Christianity at the age of Augustine became Bishop of Hippo ten years later.
Augustine's thought has had a profound impact on 3/5(2). John Locke, (born August 29, , Wrington, Somerset, England—died October 28, , High Laver, Essex), English philosopher whose works lie at the foundation of modern philosophical empiricism and political liberalism.
He was an inspirer of both the European Enlightenment and the Constitution of. Philosophy offers so many possible topics of interest that I would love to write about. For this particular instance I chose to investigate just a sliver of writing from St. Augustine.
Augustine wrote numerous books, letters, and sermons about God and religion that are still well known today.