What Causes Bipolar Disorder?
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Bipolar disorder also known as manic depressive illness is a complex genetic disorder in which the core feature is pathological disturbance in mood affect ranging from extreme elation, or mania, to severe depression usually accompanied by disturbances in thinking and behaviour.
There are methodological impediments to precise quantification, but the approximate lifetime risk of bipolar disorder in relatives of a bipolar proband are: Occasional families may exist in which a single gene plays the major role in determining susceptibility, but the majority of bipolar disorder involves the interaction of multiple genes epistasis or more complex genetic mechanisms such as dynamic mutation or imprinting.
Molecular genetic positional and candidate gene approaches are being used for the genetic dissection of bipolar disorder. No gene has yet been identified but promising findings are emerging. Regions of interest identified in linkage studies include 4p16, 12qq24, 16p13, 21q22, and Xqq To date most candidate gene studies have focused on neurotransmitter systems influenced by medication used in clinical management of the disorder but no robust positive findings have yet emerged.
It is, however, almost certain that over the next few years bipolar susceptibility genes will be identified. This will have a major impact on our understanding of disease pathophysiology and will provide important opportunities to investigate the interaction between genetic and environmental factors involved in pathogenesis.
This is likely to lead to major improvements in treatment and patient care but will also raise important ethical issues that will need to be addressed. Selected References These references are in PubMed. This may not be the complete list of references from this article.
Diagnosis and classification of functional psychoses. The classification of the depressions. Suicide and primary affective disorders. Best estimate of lifetime psychiatric diagnosis: Phenotypic definitions of psychotic illness for molecular genetic research.
Am J Med Genet. The current age of youthful melancholia. Evidence for increase in depression among adolescents and young adults. Birth-cohort changes in manic and depressive disorders in relatives of bipolar and schizoaffective patients.For subjects with a study intake diagnosis of (1) unipolar major depressive disorder, (2) schizoaffective disorder, major depression, or (3) bipolar II disorder, the treatment analyses did not include mood episodes that occurred prior to the first prospectively observed episode of mania.
Bipolar case study (1) 29, views. Share; Like ways to end this misery life• I have to fight the thoughts in my head• I feel like I cannot breath• The depression has given me the worst days in my life especially the mornings, I hate my morning because of my depression and I hate myself.• Final diagnosisShe was a soft But now.
Bipolar disorder is a mood disorder that is also known as manic-depressive disorder. This illness is a mood disorder which carries a psychiatric diagnosis. A person who is bipolar may experience deep depression with breaks of mania as a complete mood shift.
Objective: In the present study, we assessed the functional impact of depressive versus manic symptoms in bipolar disorder.
Method: A survey comprising the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), the Social Adjustment Scale Self-Report (SAS-SR), the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (MDQ), and other questions was mailed to a representative subset of individuals (with or without bipolar disorder) .
Bipolar disorder (also known as bipolar affective disorder or manic depression). a drunken walk, slurred speech, loss of appetite and vomiting.
Here you can read posts from all over the web from people who wrote about Bipolar Disorder and Slurred Speech, and check the relations between Bipolar . Jul 06, · Bipolar Disorder Statistics – Children: This webpage provides information on trends in prevalence of and use of treatments/services by children with bipolar disorder.
Join a Study: Bipolar Disorder – Adults: This webpage lists NIMH bipolar disorder clinical trials that are recruiting adults.